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Basic knowledge of stage lighting

Basic knowledge of stage lighting

(Summary description)There are a variety of stages in the theater, including ordinary framed stage, extended stage, island stage, and stage called black box. Because the stage forms are different, the lighting configuration requirements are also different. For the sake of convenience, I will only talk about the ordinary mirror-framed stage. This kind of stage has been more in the past or in the reconstruction and newly built theaters. Therefore, it is extremely necessary and necessary to talk about the lighting configuration of this stage.

Basic knowledge of stage lighting

(Summary description)There are a variety of stages in the theater, including ordinary framed stage, extended stage, island stage, and stage called black box. Because the stage forms are different, the lighting configuration requirements are also different. For the sake of convenience, I will only talk about the ordinary mirror-framed stage. This kind of stage has been more in the past or in the reconstruction and newly built theaters. Therefore, it is extremely necessary and necessary to talk about the lighting configuration of this stage.


Theater stage lighting configuration
   There are a variety of stages in the theater, including ordinary framed stage, extended stage, island stage, and stage called black box. Because the stage forms are different, the lighting configuration requirements are also different. For the sake of convenience, I will only talk about the ordinary mirror-framed stage. This kind of stage has been more in the past or in the reconstruction and newly built theaters. Therefore, it is extremely necessary and necessary to talk about the lighting configuration of this stage.
   Stage (refers to the framed stage, the following text is the same) because of the different repertoires performed, the lighting requirements will be different. Therefore, we must know what kind of repertoire is the main performance on this stage before equipping the lamps, so that the configuration of the lamps will have clearer goals and intentions. If some stage is positioned to perform traditional operas and ballets, the configuration of lamps must be configured according to the requirements of operas and ballets. If special programs such as large-scale singing and dancing, miscellaneous and other special programs are the main ones, in addition to the basic requirements of the lighting configuration, special lighting positions and lighting configurations should be added according to the specific program requirements, so it is more difficult to describe here. Therefore, I will only talk about the basic lighting configuration of the theater stage. According to this configuration, it can meet the general requirements of local dramas such as opera, dance drama, ballet, drama, and Peking opera.
  Before configuring lamps, one should first understand the types of lamps and their main functions and uses. Here I will briefly introduce the performance of some lamps and lanterns for the choice of lighting configuration time.
1. Spotlight-the spotlight used on the stage refers to the use of a plano-convex condenser in front of the lamp. This kind of lamp can adjust the size of the spot, the beam of music is more concentrated, and the diffused light next to it is relatively small, and the power is 0.5W to 5KW There are many types. The focal length is divided into long, medium and short. The distance of the viewing distance can be selected according to the needs.
2. Rib lamp-or soft light, but in the TV industry, this kind of lamp is called astigmatism lamp. On the stage, in order to distinguish the above-mentioned plano-convex spotlight from being diffuse and soft, it has a large diffusion area. Sometimes in order to control the diffused light, a title page is added in front of the mirror to block it. Its characteristic is that the light area is large, unlike a spotlight. There are obvious light spots, the shooting distance is relatively short, and the power is 1KW, 2KW, etc.
3. Back light-this kind of light has no lens in the front, and the light is completely emitted by the larger reflector at the back. With the same 2KW bulb, its brightness is brighter than that of the spotlight, so it is used when strong light source and brightness are required on the stage. Its effect is better than other lamps. The characteristic is that the beam is strong, but the focus point should be paid attention to when dimming. It is not advisable to adjust the focus point on the colored paper or curtain, which will easily cause burning. In addition, black centers often appear in the center during dimming. , In order to avoid the black center, a ring-shaped baffle is added to the center of the front end of the lamp, and the light spot emitted by it is large and not easy to close. Now a new kind of coating on the reflector to make the outer line of the line transmit backwards to reduce the temperature in front of the lamp, the use effect is very good, the name is cold light super spotlight, the actual structure of the lamp is the same as that of the return light.
4. Imaging lights-or shaped lights, ellipsoid spotlights. There are many beam angles that can be selected and applied according to needs. The main feature is that it can cut the spot into various shapes such as squares, diamonds, triangles, etc., or project various patterns and patterns, and the power is also 1KW, 2KW, etc. Optional configuration.
5. Simple lamp-also known as PAR lamp, or beam lamp, its structure is to install a mirror bulb in the cylinder and also use a reflective bowl with bromine tungsten bulbs. The main feature is to emit a relatively fixed beam, with a variety of beam angles and light spots. The size cannot be adjusted.
6. Sky row lamp-high-power astigmatism lamp, used to illuminate the sky curtain from top to bottom, requiring bright and balanced light, and a large illuminated area.
7. Ground row lights-high-power astigmatism lights, used to put on the stage, the lower part of the canopy illuminates upwards, and the light irradiated by the sky row lights are connected evenly up and down.
8. Astigmatism strip light-long strip, divided into multiple grids, generally can be divided into three or four colors, each grid uses incandescent bulbs with a power of about 200W, and various colors are required to be connected and evenly used for large-area illuminating screens or painting screens , It can also be used for large-area balanced spreading, and various colors of light can also be used at the same time to call out different colored light beams.
9. General astigmatism lamps-such as iodine tungsten lamps and ordinary floodlights, are mainly used to evenly illuminate a certain area or some scenery.
   The above-mentioned lamps and lanterns are the basic lamps and lanterns used on the general stage, but other kinds of lamps should be equipped due to the different forms of the repertoire. For example, the singing and dancing party uses a large number of downlights in addition to the basic lamps, computer lamps, hose lamps, board lamps, various effect lamps, and even smokers, dry ice machines, strobe lights, lasers and projection slides, as well as supporting use For rear projection, to reduce light source spots, special seamless plastic screens, etc., I will not give examples one by one here.

The stage lighting configuration is divided into two parts, the outside of the platform and the inside of the platform, with the mouth as the boundary

   One. General face light, slap, bag box (building), and long-distance chasing room outside the platform.
1. According to the scale of the theater stage, there are one surface lighting, two surface lighting, or even three surface lighting. The configuration of the surface light should be based on the different distances, and the spotlights and imaging lights with different collection distances should be configured, and the power should be above 2KW. The first surface light is closer to the proscenium, and some 2KW rib lights and return lights can also be added. Follow spot lamps with suitable focal length and power should be added to the left, middle, and right positions of one surface light and two surface lights. The brightness and color change can be individually controlled by the follower.
2. The slaps are arranged symmetrically on the left and right sides of the proscenium. According to the scale of the theater stage, each side of the slap can be set with one or two slaps, equipped with lamps, mainly spotlights, and a small amount of imaging lights, rib lights, because slaps * side wall of the auditorium Very close, when using the rib light, the diffused light often illuminates the nearby wall very brightly, which affects the atmosphere of some scenes, so it is better to use less. A set of follow-up lights should be set in each slap on the left and right for arbitrary control by the follow-up personnel.
3. The foot light is generally outside the platform * by the side of the music pool, with a foot light slot, built-in four-color astigmatic light, color separation control, and its length is slightly less than the width of the platform.
4. The long-distance chasing room is generally set up on the left and right of the back of the auditorium, equipped with gas discharge lamps such as xenon lamps, and all control is operated by the chasing staff. If there is no special chasing room, it is often on the left and right sides of the building. Follow spot lights are set in the rear area.
5. For the box (seat) light, according to the theater situation, you can set up a number of spotlights on the left, middle, and right of the box (seat). If conditions do not permit, you can also not set it.

2. The proscenium is generally divided into fake proscenium side piece (left and right pillar light), fake proscenium top piece (one top suspension bridge), second top, three top, four top, five top, sky row, ground row, left and right flow, left and right Light (left and right hanging cages), one hanging cage, two hanging cages, three hanging cages, four hanging cages, five hanging cages, etc. Depending on the size of the stage, some facilities are less, for example, the top light depends on the stage Depth, the distribution of scenic spots to determine a few suitable. The left and right side lights (hanging cage) should also be set according to the size of the stage and even the investment. Some stages have backstage or anti-projection requirements behind the sky. This should also be considered based on the stage scale, investment, and the main performance of the repertoire. If this is possible, the configuration of the lighting should of course also be planned. For supporting use.
1. The side panels of the fake proscenium (left and right pillar lights) are equipped with spotlights, rib lights, follow-up lights, and a small number of imaging lights, except for special ones, are generally left-right symmetrical.
2. The fake proscenium top film (a suspension bridge) is equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, imaging lights, and follow-up lights.
3. The two top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, and downlights.
4. Three top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, return lights, and downlights.
5. The four top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, return lights, and downlights.
6. Five top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, return lights, and downlights.
7. The sky row is equipped with sky row lights.
8. The ground row is equipped with ground row lights.
9. Mobile configuration mobile lamp stands, spotlights, rib lights, flat lights, etc.
10. The left and right side lights (light cage) are equipped with spotlights, rib lights, imaging lights, and return lights.
  Some theater stage ceiling lights are not equipped with astigmatism strip lights, but instead use rows of iodine-tungsten astigmatism lights.
  The way of configuring lamps can be changed according to needs, but the performance of various lamps should be considered. Make it give full play to its functions for my use, to achieve perfection.

The main points of the composition of stage lighting

1. Characteristics of performance space composition
Architecture, sculpture, and painting are art that keeps time and space relatively eternal in plane or three-dimensional. Performance art, as a comprehensive time and space art, needs a space to maintain the relationship between performances-theater or performance venue. In performances that transcend time and space, stage artists jointly constitute a visual and auditory creative space with multi-dimensional factors such as sound, light, color, and shape, and continue to develop over time, as well as the conversion of plots and scenes. Whether it’s the turning point of the drama plot or the performance of opera singing and dancing, at the same time, the performance lighting changes in the audience’s vision or unknowingly changes the light and shade effects, changes in the shape and space, or the functions of the lighting equipment itself. Kind of visual performance. Participate in the performance by shaping the image, rendering the color, changing the rhythm, etc., and form a special stage performance space atmosphere with visual vocabulary, which affects the emotional changes of the audience and constitutes a specific space that is consistent with the content of the stage performance that interacts with the scene, the actors, and the audience .
1. Performance space
1) Stage
According to the characteristics of the performance scene and the performance environment such as theater studios, it is found that objective conditions can be used for lighting design.
2) The condition of performance spaces such as theaters and studios
Space environment: Investigate and understand the theater, measure and draw or request the plan and section data of the performance environment space, the height, width, and stage depth data and scale units of the theater's entrance.
Equipment status: number and length of booms, arrangement spacing, sequence number, plane position, etc.
Electricity load: the rated load capacity of the main trunk line, the rated load capacity of the branch circuit, etc.
2. Study scripts and creative ideas
The script is the basis for the lighting equipment and creative conception, which can be refined and processed by digging out the performance space related to the creation.
1) Find out representative character characteristics, plot changes, contradictions and conflicts, and the environment required for the idea.
2) Imagine and locate the description of the era, time, season, scene environment, light source direction and color.
3) Determine the appropriate performance method and means of performance. Consider what kind of lamps can be used to create stage visual effects that match the plot.
4) Scenes and stage installations suggested by the script.
3. The performance of time and space conversion
1) Weather: sunrise and sunset, dusk to night, night to dawn, seasonal changes, moon night and starry sky, changes in location and region, etc.
2) The transformation of regional space, psychological space, scene space, virtual space, partial and overall space, etc.
4. Conception of spatial shaping from plane to three-dimensional
For the production, processing and combination of visual effects on the surface of each shape, as well as the application of the flat composition expression of the foreground space, the middle space space, and the background space. The internal organization and arrangement of the upper, middle and lower spaces and the method of realization are forecasted.
For example: the setting of the backlight position: horizontal direction, vertical angle, position height, number of lamps, etc.
5. Part and overall picture composition
Control lights and colors and illuminated areas. The composition of the stage visual picture is expressed in terms of area size, shape, and quantity.
6. Choice of manifestation
Determine the appropriate expression style according to the overall style of creation.
The past, the present, the future, even thinking, illusions, dreams, memories, longing, feelings, impressions, abstraction and realism, etc.
7. Represent infinite space in limited space
There are huge spatial effects that vary greatly in performance.
The performance of real space and virtual space: specific stage space and special stage expressions. Voiceover: Dialogue: Monologue, etc.
Reconstruction and expansion of the actual space environment, or exaggerated or reduced depiction.
The description and performance of the psychological space of the characters in the play.
8. The way the light changes
1) Change in plot is an opportunity for spatial change.
2) The light change opportunity determined by the lines.
3) Opportunities for light changes determined by actions.
4) Opportunities for lighting changes determined by music or sound effects.
5) Opportunities for lighting changes determined by time.
9. Spatial processing of different styles and schools
Classical, romantic, natural, realistic, symbolic, three-dimensional, future, composition, performance, surreal, time-space transitions related to music and sound effects: tunes, melody, and rhythm.

2. Spatial representation methods
1. Research on the characteristics and performance of lighting equipment
*Flood lights: heaven and earth row lights, foot lights, top row flood lights, etc.
* Spotlight: Convex lens spotlight, soft spotlight.
*Spotlight without lens: return light, PAR light and closed bulb. Including: parallel, light collection, soft light, astigmatism, etc.
*Imaging spotlights: shaping lights, imaging inserts, and follow-up lights.
*Slide effect lamps: water ripple slides, running clouds slides, PANI slides and other effect lamps, etc.
*Computer lights: lighting fixtures that integrate the form of rotation of the lamp body, the form of mirror movement, and the integration of color changing, imaging and shaping, and movement changes.
*Special projection lamps: effect equipment, color changers, smokers, digital computer projection equipment, etc.
*Operation control system: functions of SCR dimmer and dimming console.
*Color light filter: various filters, color temperature, dimming, reflector, soft light, etc.
*Demonstration laser: Use low-power laser generators of various colors to scan the screen under computer control.
*Auxiliary effect equipment: smoke generator and exhaust and air supply devices.
Snow generating device, soap bubble generating device, carbon dioxide smoke, liquid nitrogen, fried smoke, paper fireworks, dry ice, etc.
2. Research and application performance of light and material characteristics of illuminated objects
Material-reflection, diffuse reflection, translucent, semi-transparent, non-transparent, soft, hard and soft, absorption and reflection law.
Material--textile material--cotton, satin, velvet, linen, gauze.
Metal materials-gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum alloy, and stainless steel.
Natural materials-wood, stone, soil, brick, plant
Synthetic material-nylon plastic foam material PVC sheet.
Smoke material--glycol smoke, oily residual smoke, dry ice low-layer smoke, fried smoke, liquid nitrogen
Performance effects-front projection, reverse projection, plane, three-dimensional, relief, texture, point, line, surface, level, transparent, halo silhouette, semi-silhouette, etc.
Performance characteristics-mesh, rope, strip screen, pillar, gauze screen, strip screen, frame, light box, etc.
3. Research and basic concepts of lighting modeling: feeling and performance
A Basics of Lighting--Research on Lighting of Static Characters
Four elements of lighting
1) Main light: Determine the direction of the main light based on the subject and viewpoint. The main light is stronger than other lights. Use hard light such as spotlights.
2) Auxiliary light: it supplements and supplements the main light and plays a modified role. Use soft light to simulate the reflected light of the natural environment.
3) Backlight: Add light on the basis of the main light. It can be stronger than the main light, or lower than the main light and stronger than the auxiliary light, playing a decorative role.
4) Light ratio: The ratio of light to darkness of the body to the light received by all parties. The light ratio can be adjusted according to the creative needs to obtain the desired effect.
Light distribution angle research: 90/120/180/270 degrees, etc.
B cast light experiment
Projection position Light receiving effect Visual impression Theater lighting equipment
1) Directly above the front-stability, natural sense, smooth surface
2) Forward obliquely above-three-dimensional, lively, slapped
3)Front level-plain, faded expression, flat shot and follow-up
4) Directly in front and underneath-abnormal feeling of restlessness, foot light and low angle projection
5) Upright direction-image distortion, no expression, top row light and top cast light
6) Above the front side-strong contrast, yin and yang face, side bridge and top side cast light
7) Front side level-strong and cool, side mobile light and flat side light
8) Directly behind and above-with clear outline, decorative sense, top row backlighting and top backlighting
4. Experience and observe life
a Observe changes in the natural environment-sunlight, moonlight, sunny, cloudy, rainy, snowy, environmental impact
b Observe life-light and character scene-daylight: forward light, back light, side light, half side and other effects performance
c. Application-lighting exercises to determine the subject content: lighting exercises for the character pictures.
Related factors-light and shade, strength, color, tone, light and shadow, light quality, media, movement, vocabulary
Visual effects-spatial area, changing rhythm, time-space conversion, expression form, environmental treatment, design combination
Stage Lighting-Small Theater Large Theater Overhanging Stage Three-sided Stage Four-sided Stage Lighting Experiment Theater Projection Light
5. Theater lighting experiment: including theater lighting equipment, projection positions, lighting effects, and visual impressions
TEST-1 floodlight row: uniform lighting on the stage as a whole, and the lighting of the scene screen, the effect is scattered and symmetrical.
TEST-2 Bare-footed ground row: Simulates natural ground reflections, depicting actors at close range, but there are more chaotic shadows on the sky.
TEST-3 Floodlight row and foot-bare rehearsal: In the performance area, the sky curtain is evenly illuminated, which is an understatement and lacks three-dimensionality.
TEST-4 Sky Row Light: Evenly render the upper part of the sky curtain and color changes.
TEST-5 ground row lights: the light and dark color changes in the lower part of the sky curtain: the silhouette effect description at sunrise and sunset, etc.
TEST-6 Heaven and Earth Row Lights: When the upper and lower parts have the same color light, the uniform background lighting can be obtained. It can express scenes such as day and night.
TEST-7 Flood light row, foot light, heaven and earth row light: eliminates noise, high-key dilute effect, the relationship between the primary and secondary characters is unclear.
TEST-8 Floodlight: Projected from the top of the stage, the projected image is outstanding, and the color light effect is more gorgeous.
TEST-9 Floodlights, foot lights, heaven and earth rows, top row lights: the audience's line of sight is more concentrated, and the characters are not light enough.
TEST-10 Stage moving light: It can enhance the three-dimensional sense of the character scene, but shadows often appear on the table.
TEST-11 Surface lighting: about 450 angles from the top of the auditorium to the stage, simulating the effect of natural light.
TEST-12 Slap lighting: cast from both sides of the front of the stage to enhance the actor's three-dimensional effect.
TEST-13 Floodlight row light + foot light + heaven and earth row + surface light + slap: pay attention to the hue relationship when obtaining sufficient brightness.
TEST-14 Flood light row, foot light, heaven and earth row, top row, flow, surface light, slap: usually more lighting methods are used. The more comprehensive azimuth projection, according to the actual needs of the performance, through dimming means, so as to obtain the ideal three-dimensional space effect.
TEST-15 Follow light: usually set in the back of the auditorium or local space lighting when needed, such as half of the character or the whole body.
TEST-16 Ground row, top row, surface light, flow, follow light, etc.: through dimming processing to express the three-dimensional sense to obtain a creative environment atmosphere.
TEST-17 Heaven and earth row blue, top row white light, and light blue, flowing white light: the sky and earth row blue light creates the overall tone, and the top row blue light covers the stage. Among them, three spotlights emphasize the three partial figures respectively, and one mobile lamp Emphasize the spherical background.
TEST-18 Ground row lights green, blue, top row lights white and blue, mobile lights light purple: the sky curtain forms a transition from blue to dark blue from bottom to top, the top row lights are blue all over the countertop, and the top row lights are white. After calendering, it is projected towards the characters, and the light purple light flowing on both sides complements the middle of the stage, forming a soft contrasting color atmosphere with cool colors.
TEST-19 Two concentrating foot lights, light purple and light blue, top row light, white light and light blue, mobile light dark blue: use the condensing foot lights to project the light and shadow of the characters on the background of the sky screen, the top row of lights is blue all over the stage, and the top light is single The lamp emphasizes the central image, combined with the deep blue light of the flowing lamp, showing a dreamlike impact effect atmosphere.
TEST-20 Ground row light red, top row single white light, orange and yellow moving lights on both sides, light orange surface light, and flowing light yellow: ground light bar causes red excessive background, top row white light for emphasis, surface light projection A soft orange light stage and enhanced mobile lights make the three-dimensional sense of space more prominent. (TEST 1-20 note text is from Matsushita Electric Works "STAGE & ENTERAINMENT LIGHTING".
6. Temporary stage lighting for stadiums, gymnasiums, cultural landscapes, etc.
a. Light source characteristics: visible light, natural light source, artificial light source
b. Five elements: 1) Main light 2) Auxiliary light 3) Contour light 4) Background light (ambient atmosphere) 5) Modification light (light ratio contrast)
c. Visual perception: intuitive visual effects of eyes; photosensitive film effects; TV screen effects
d. The modeling elements of the performance lighting
1) Light source
*Daylight: The change of time and color temperature and the patterning law-the process from dawn to sunset.
*Light: (bubble shape, tube shape) tungsten lamp, incandescent lamp, iodine tungsten lamp, dysprosium lamp, flash lamp, xenon lamp, fluorescent lamp, halogen tungsten lamp, metal halide lamp, laser (sodium lamp, mercury lamp), etc.
In the design of performance lighting, the important thing is to choose the kind of lamps to express the space effect of the stage. The light source, power, lamp type, lens and model of the lamp will produce different effects for the performance to choose.
2) Light intensity
*The light and dark effects of visual perception-design using the physiological characteristics of the eyes. It takes about 15 to 30 minutes for the eyes to enter the scotopic state from photopic vision, while the time required to enter the photopic vision state from scotopic vision is relatively short. Therefore, the design of the performance lighting scene can deliberately distinguish the light and dark intensity of each scene according to the content of the script. Understanding the objective existence of actual brightness and contrast brightness is an important factor in grasping the stage space picture. Different types and powers of lamps and lanterns have different luminous intensities. The resulting effect is also different, and the luminous intensity is different according to the scale of the performance space and the type and power of the lamps. The effect is also different.
3) Light quality
*Light projection characteristics of various lamps; uniformity, beam angle, flexibility, and optical performance. The application effect of soft light paper, light-reducing yarn and reflector.
4) Light ratio
*The contrast of light and dark in the same visual space.
*The light and dark effects of visual perception-design using the physiological characteristics of the eyes. It takes about 15 to 30 minutes for the eyes to enter the scotopic state from photopic vision, while the time required to enter the photopic vision state from scotopic vision is relatively short. Therefore, the design of the performance lighting scene can deliberately distinguish the light and dark intensity of each scene according to the content of the script.
*Focus on the whole; emphasize the part. The brighter the stage as a whole, the darker the actors. The contrast between the light and dark and the color area in the same space can produce different visual changes.
*The contrast between the main light and the auxiliary light of the character modeling and the color: it needs to be set for the visual appreciation of the performance.
2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 30:1, 50:1, 100:1.
*The comparison between the main character light and the non-main character light: in the same environment, the primary and secondary relationship should be distinguished according to the spatial level and performance intention, ranging from 2:1, 3:1, 5:1.
*The contrast between character light and ambient light: ranging from 2:1, 5:1, and 10:1.
*The light ratio of foreground, middle and background scenes: ranging from 2:1 to 10:1.
*The contrast of light and dark and color between the scene and the scene space in the performance: use the time change of the plot development; seasonal changes; scene change: light and dark changes; contrast of color changes.
5) Light zone
*The area distribution of the light projected on the stage or performance space and the difference between the light area and the outside.
*The stage performance area is divided into the front, middle and back, left, middle and right as the lighting area designed according to the design.
* The partial or overall illuminated area required for the development of the performance plot.
*Performance area lighting and scenic spot lighting.
6) Light position
Light projection position: refers to the specific position of the lamp in the three-dimensional space. Including, surface light, slap light, proscenium pillar light, foot light, proscenium top light, top row spotlight, top row flood light, sky row light, ground row light, side bridge light, mobile light, side light, (hanging Cage stand) chasing light and so on.
Direction performance required for plot development: backlight, light and shadow, sunrise and sunset, dawn and tomorrow, etc.
The specific lamp position design required for the performance light zone. For example: single-lamp lighting; multi-lamp lighting.
Light projection direction: side light effect: 1/2 (shading effect) from side bridge light, flowing light, side light, top side light; half side light effect: 3/4 slap, proscenium pillar light, top light in the corresponding direction; Front light effect: surface light, top row light, follow light.
7) Light color
*Color temperature and color rendering index: color temperature adjustment.
*Additive color method, subtractive color method, the law of light color and object color addition, the law of light color absorption and reflection.
*Color filters and types: Shanghai Wellcome, Changshu Chunhua, Japanese LEE ROSCO color filters and color temperature filters.
* Chromaticity diagram research: actual colors and contrast colors.
*The influence of psychological and emotional color on people.
*Color contrast: primary color contrast, intermediate color contrast, color temperature contrast, light and dark contrast.
8) Light and shadow
*Projection modeling: light source projection, light spot effect, transparent light and shadow, front and back projection.
* Imaging slide projection: slides, modeling lights, computer lights, follow-up lights, digital projection equipment, movie projector projection, etc.
*The roughness or smoothness of the surface of the modeling object.
*Character silhouette, close silhouette effect and media function.
* Semi-transparent reverse projection, low-angle forward and reverse projection, backlight and side backlight effects. Side light and shadow effect.
*Media: Smoke, water mist.
9) The movement of light
*The transition and continuation process of the light color in the sky and the light change during the stage performance.
*Dynamic lamps and lighting effects used in the performance space.
*Cue-Q program arranges the time, rhythm, quantity, etc. of changes.
e-light's styling function
(1) Illumination: - If there is no light, there will be no shape, and the shape is presented by controlling the brightness of the light.
(2) Shaping the image:-Describe the character characteristics of the characters and express the spatial effects of different sceneries.
(3) Light ratio adjustment-the pursuit of good visual effects; actual effect comparison; visual effect comparison.
(4) Temporal and spatial atmosphere:-performance of the temporal and spatial atmosphere required for the situation.
(5) Performance theme content: ---related visual vocabulary such as lighting colors.
(6) Communicating the relationship between performance and performance: - to promote emotional communication between the actors and the audience.
(7) Illumination (direct light):-promote the emotional communication between the actors and the audience.
*Illuminance: The luminous flux obtained on the surface of an object per unit area. For a uniformly illuminated object, when the luminous flux obtained on a 1 square meter area is 1 lumens, the illuminance on its surface is 1 lux; therefore, the point light source of 1 international candlelight is the center and the radius of 1 meter is on the spherical surface. The resulting illuminance is called 1 lux. It is represented by the letters Lux or Lu.
*The illumination intensity is determined by the power and design of the light source and the distance between the projection surfaces. The higher the luminous intensity of the light source, the higher the illuminance; the closer the distance, the higher the illuminance.
*The illuminance value of the surface of the illuminated object is also related to the angle of the projected light. The more vertical the light distribution, the higher the illuminance.
*The inverse square law of illuminance: the light source remains unchanged, and the illuminance of the vertical illuminated surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light source.
For example: if the floodlight is moved backward by 2 times the original distance, the illuminated area will increase by 4 times, and the illuminance value will only be 1/4 of the original; if it is moved backward by 3 times, the illuminance value will be reduced by 9 times. On the contrary, if you move forward the original distance of 1 and a half of the illuminance value increases by 4 times. Generally, the vertical illuminance of the light source is mainly measured in performance applications.
* Degree and vertical illuminance: The level of the stage's horizontal illuminance determines the brightness of the stage table; the level of vertical illuminance determines.
(8) Brightness: Brightness represents the intensity value of the luminous surface of the object. Regardless of whether this surface emits light by itself, reflects light, or transmits light, as long as it is viewed from the "emission" of light on its surface, it can be called a luminous surface. The luminous intensity per unit area is the brightness of the surface of the object. On the same light-emitting surface, the brightness values ​​are different in different directions. The measurement of brightness is generally carried out in the direction perpendicular to the line of sight, and the intensity of the luminous surface per unit area is called brightness. If the light intensity does not change, the smaller the projected area of ​​the light-emitting surface, the higher the brightness, and the larger the projected area of ​​the light-emitting surface, the lower the brightness. The unit of brightness is nit (nt). 1 nit = 1 candela/1 square meter. Secondly, the higher the reflectivity of the object, the higher the brightness. Under the same illumination, white and black illuminated objects have different reflectivity, different ability to reflect and absorb light, and different surface brightness. In addition, there are concepts of actual brightness and visual brightness in brightness. Visual brightness refers to the brightness of the visual sense organs. Under low illumination conditions, we strive to make the audience watching the performance feel comfortable visual brightness, that is, using people's visual physiological characteristics to create an effect that is higher than the actual physical brightness.
Horizontal illuminance and vertical illuminance: The level of the stage's horizontal illuminance determines the brightness of the stage table; the level of vertical illuminance determines the brightness of the visual effects of the characters and scenes seen by the audience. Usually in the performance application, the focus is on measuring the reflected light brightness of the illuminated object.
(9) Color temperature: The color temperature is the temperature of the "complete radiator" to express the spectral composition of the actual light source. It is based on the absolute zero (-273°C) of the "Kelvin" scale and is based on K (or K ) Is a symbol. As the temperature increases, the color of the radiant black body changes, first from dark red to yellow, and finally to blue-white. The spectral components radiated by the "complete radiator" at different temperatures will produce a series of radiant light color changes. When the wavelength emitted by the "complete radiator" coincides with the color of the spectral light with the change of temperature, it is the color temperature of the "complete radiator" at this time.
Color temperature represents the light color of the light source with a physical objective digital concept, not the temperature of the light color. The lower the color temperature of the light source, the more the light color is biased towards the visual effect of warm colors. The higher the color temperature of the light source, the more the light color is biased towards the visual effect of cool colors.
For example, as the voltage of a tungsten filament lamp increases, the temperature of the filament increases, and the color temperature of the light source of the filament also changes from red to white. When the voltage drops by 1V, the color temperature of the light source drops by about 8K.
(10) Color rendering: refers to the evaluation of the quality of the visual effect of the color when the light source illuminates the object. The value of this evaluation is based on the color index seen under the reference light, and the color reflected by the object under the full color spectrum is the most true. Daylight is a full-color light source with the best color rendering. In addition to high luminous efficiency, stage and film lighting sources require good color rendering performance and low color distortion of illuminated objects.
For example, the color rendering index of 1kw~2kw halogen tungsten stage lighting can reach an evaluation of 100, while the color rendering index of mercury lamps can only reach an evaluation of 50.
*Direct light: Or called direct illumination light.
*Reflected light: the brightness obtained by light passing through the reflective surface.
*Diffuse light: Or called indirect lighting.
*Transmitted light: the brightness obtained by light passing through different light-transmitting materials.

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