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Code for design of song and dance hall

Code for design of song and dance hall

(Summary description)The song and dance hall is a high-level comprehensive cultural product. It is a hierarchical system, in which each subsystem is composed of various elements, and they intersect into a network, which is a structure formed by the handover relationship between various elements and subsystems. ; Use the techniques and techniques of architectural art of interior design to optimize and stabilize it to produce the overall effect of the system.

Code for design of song and dance hall

(Summary description)The song and dance hall is a high-level comprehensive cultural product. It is a hierarchical system, in which each subsystem is composed of various elements, and they intersect into a network, which is a structure formed by the handover relationship between various elements and subsystems. ; Use the techniques and techniques of architectural art of interior design to optimize and stabilize it to produce the overall effect of the system.


The song and dance hall is a high-level comprehensive cultural product. It is a hierarchical system, in which each subsystem is composed of various elements, and they intersect into a network, which is a structure formed by the handover relationship between various elements and subsystems. ; Use the techniques and techniques of architectural art of interior design to optimize and stabilize it to produce the overall effect of the system. Sound reinforcement system, architectural acoustics, lighting system, indoor technology, etc. are all elements and subsystems of the dance hall as a system project. They intersect and entangle each other on different levels, each has its own characteristics and contradicts each other. Therefore, all elements and subsystems must be carefully analyzed and carefully considered in order to untie the nodes of their cross-network, unify the contradictions, obtain the overall effect, and meet the requirements of various laws and regulations. Sound construction design should provide a good sound field in order to give full play to the performance of the sound reinforcement system and its equipment, and provide the practice and layout of sound-absorbing materials and components, and the interior design to provide the prototype of space creation; also provide good illumination for the lighting system Conditions and exerting its artistic effects are the foundation of the artistic image of song and dance halls. Similarly, the interior design can provide suitable positions and tuning workplaces for the speakers, and is also an organizer who unifies various technologies to create a beautiful environment for viewing and listening. However, in practice, they tend to be independent, independent of each other, and design independently; the sound reinforcement system designer believes that as long as there is a good equipment and system design, there will be a good sound reinforcement effect; the sound reinforcement designer only considers how to ensure that the mixing is achieved. In response to the requirements of time, provide the design of acoustic materials and components; interior designers think that scientific and technical personnel do not understand art, and create behind closed doors. Finally, they provide a space that they think is beautiful to the scientific and technical personnel, so that they can place various equipment and perform in this space. Deal with it; correspondingly, the scientific and technical personnel also think that they do not understand the art of architecture, and ignore it. As everyone knows, the optimization of their own system is not equal to the overall optimization, but often produces negative effects on the contrary. Therefore, various designers of song and dance halls should realize that song and dance halls are a systematic project. The sound reinforcement system, architectural acoustics, lighting system, interior design, etc., are a subsystem of the system. As a sound reinforcement system designer, he should regard the relevant technology and art as a body of knowledge, and more importantly, as a way of thinking, so that he can explore the various interweaving creations of technology and art on a higher level. It is both scientific and Only with the overall effect of art can a good sound reinforcement effect be obtained.

The most distinguishing features of the sound field of the song and dance hall from ordinary theaters and halls are the following three points: First, it has a large-area dance floor with a smooth surface, which is a strong sound reflection surface; second, there is a light stand on the ceiling of the dance floor. , It has concentrated a large number of technical equipment, art lighting fixtures, performance lighting fixtures, sound, video equipment, etc. in the dance hall. Therefore, the dance floor is the center of viewing and listening, that is, the heart of the dance hall; the third is that the dance floor and the stage co-exist in the same space, and the composed space (sound field) represents the sound quality characteristics of the dance hall: the volume is large, and its sound level should be 95dB , And there is a margin of 6~10dB, the sound pressure level of disco music should be 110dB, and there should be a margin of 10dB; in addition, actors and singers often walk into the dance floor with microphones in hand, so that sound reinforcement and sound reception are mixed together, which is easy Causes howling, so the sound field conditions of the dance hall are very complicated, and its acoustic design is sometimes more difficult than that of the theater. However, it has not attracted sufficient attention, and even the designers of sound reinforcement systems have not paid the attention it deserves. The ratio of height, width and length of a room is a condition that directly affects the quality of the sound field. When the ratio is appropriate, the resonance frequency of the room is evenly distributed. The ratio of "acoustics" is usually deduced as the "golden rule", that is, 0.618:1:1.618. As we all know, the "golden rule" is also one of the proportions of the beauty of the auditorium, and it is also the scientific meaning of "isomorphism" in architectural art. It means that some objects are very different from the outside, and the structural form of their internal composition, or in other words The connection forms between the components are the same, and they can be transformed into each other through some transformation. 0.618 ("Golden Rule") is the value of their transformation. The key in the ratio is the height. The height of the dance hall should be 5 meters. Above, the lack of low-frequency resonance in the short room will affect the sound quality in the hall; in addition, the shelf on the upper part of the dance floor is where effect lamps and performance lamps, as well as speaker groups and video equipment for dancing, are installed, so the grid has a certain height. Yes, it is required that the top grid at this place should have a certain height, so that there is a good illumination angle to achieve good lighting art effects and suitable sound coverage; because the strong reflection of the dance floor has a great impact on the sound quality in the hall, it must be on the grid. The top grid on the upper part of the shelf is equipped with sound-absorbing materials of sufficient thickness, so the height of the hall and its ratio are important factors in determining the sound quality and lighting in the hall. If the space in the hall is limited and this ratio cannot be achieved, at least the dance floor must be used The empty sound enclosed by the stage can meet this ratio. Should avoid the arc surface and two parallel surfaces, they will produce sound quality defects, especially on this surface with mirror or hard materials for decoration, it is more harmful, if it must be used from the modeling requirements, this surface should be used For acoustic treatment.
In addition to the decoration in the song and dance hall, the beautiful visual effect must meet the standard requirements. The reverberation time is a function of volume, and it can generally be about 1 second. Nowadays, most of the dance halls use a large number of carpets, or use decorative cloth as the surface decoration, and put plastic or ultra-fine glass wool inside, which is the so-called "soft bag" treatment. This approach will cause excessive absorption of high-frequency sound, and make the reverberation time of mid-high frequency shorter, so the sound in the hall is not bright enough, poor definition, not gorgeous and colorless. There is also a large number of methods used to cover the exterior with three-plywood or five-plywood, which is generally consolidated with small nails; some are covered with a layer of "soft bag", which makes the low-frequency sound in the hall be absorbed a lot. Make the sound in the hall hard, inelastic and unbalanced. Because there is no strict acoustic design, the sound-absorbing materials and components in the hall are single, resulting in excessive absorption and distortion of sound at a certain frequency. This makes it difficult to adjust even if the room equalizer is used, and it often appears to be adjusted to the top during the adjustment process. The phenomenon that can't be pulled down causes the sound of that frequency to "smelt", and the transmission frequency effect is very poor. The brightness, the sense of layering is very poor, and the softness is not soft.

The speakers are installed on the stage. Both the combined speakers and the woofer must be placed on the structural floor or on a solid support (the woofer should be placed on the ground); and the suspension bracket and fulcrum of the suspended speaker should be firm and not vibrate. Otherwise, the sound quality will deteriorate. The wood decoration is often caused by carelessness in the construction, and the nails are not firmly nailed, resulting in the noise of the plate vibration; the light hanger will also produce 40-80 Hz low-frequency resonance. When this kind of vibration noise is debugged in the room equalizer, a false image of a peak appears in the frequency spectrum. The sound is weakened and the peak disappears; but it is not linear, so it is difficult to debug. There should be no interference between the KTV rooms and the hall. The total sound insulation capacity of the top grid and partition wall is about 60dB. 24 brick walls or double-layer 100mm aerated concrete blocks can be used; double-layer gypsum board (2*12mm) Double-row keel, with a hollow 50mm filled with rock wool, but not a sound bridge; all partition walls should be connected with the floor slab without gaps; currently many dance halls have poor sound insulation, most of which are due to partition walls If it is not connected to the floor slab, it is sufficient to have a suspended ceiling.

The  control room is the control center of sound, video and lighting in dance halls and private rooms. Due to the increasing complexity and quantity of various equipment, the number of operators is increasing. Therefore, the area of ​​the control room should not be less than 20 square meters, and its location should be directly in front of the stage. The operator can see and hear directly through the observation window Stage and dance floor performances.

Lighting system

The lighting system consists of a power switch cabinet (board), a flow tube dimming cabinet (part), a dimming console, a lighting controller, basic lighting fixtures, special effects fixtures, performance fixtures, and audio signals. Basic lighting fixtures commonly used include incandescent lamps (mostly downlights), fluorescent lamps, tubes, gas lamps, halogen lamps, neon lamps and candles, etc., which form an overall style with the interior design. The effect of light fixtures is a kind of lamps whose body rotates, and the movement of the light beam and spot can produce a strong sense of movement. Such lights include cosmic lights, multi-head cannonball lights, multi-layer reversing lights, multi-directional flying butterfly lights, and lotus lights. Wait. The second category is the light source reflector movement lamps, most of which can be voice-controlled, and the light spot jumping or turning can be consistent with the rhythm of the rhyme music to produce artistic effects and atmosphere. Such lights include laser phantom scanning lights, devil lights, gypsophila, moon-star lights, and some single-light source multi-reflector effect lights. Special effect lamps such lamps include strobe light, ultraviolet light, laser effect light, computer light, music fountain, etc. Can add special, gorgeous and charming effects. Performance lighting fixtures are used for stage performances. The requirements are the same as the theater stage. There should be an appropriate number of surface lights, side lights, top lights and back lights; small and medium downlights, spotlights, spotlights, and soft lights can be used And follow spot lights. It is required that the lamps should be symmetrically distributed, and the light spot can cover the dance floor. The color changes and dynamics of the lighting serve music and dance, as well as the overall style and artistic effect of the dance hall. Various lighting arrangements should meet the requirements of fast and slow rhythms of multiple types of music. Each song (each dance step) must have 1 to 3 effect lights or special effect lights to produce 1 to 3 harmonious changes and movements. The beat and tone should be in harmony with the connotation of the song. Strobe lights are used for disco dance music, and each time should not exceed 2 tunes in a row; the UV tube should be opened and closed intermittently, and the irradiation time per night should not exceed 1 hour on the premise that the irradiation intensity meets the standard. Illumination requirements: performance area greater than 100Lux, spontaneous area greater than 20Lux, viewing rest area greater than 5Lux, various channels greater than 10Lux, can be dimmed in actual use, dance floor (self-entertainment area) greater than 6Lux, other areas not less than 6Lux , The package box shall not be less than 3Lux. The strobe frequency of the strobe light should be within 6 Hz, and the laser should not be directed at the human body, especially the eyes.

Acoustic system

The acoustic system of  dance hall is composed of the receiving sound field where the microphone (natural sound source) is located, the sound reinforcement field of the speaker and the sound reinforcement equipment. The quality of the sound reinforcement field is directly related to the quality of the frequency characteristics of the sound heard, the uniformity of the sound field distribution and the quality of various acoustic characteristics such as acoustic interference; the maximum impact of the sound field will cause acoustic feedback (howling ), seriously reduce the sound transmission gain; and these two sound fields are formed by architectural acoustics and decoration engineering, which is determined by the interior design, so the interior design of the dance hall must fully express its special characteristics and functions. Good and reasonable architectural acoustic design is the basic connotation of the interior design of the dance hall, and it is also the basic guarantee for the sound reinforcement system of the dance hall. Therefore, the design and construction of dance halls (including indoor sound and decoration, sound reinforcement system and lighting system) should not be handed over to units or individuals without technical strength and scientific means.

Composition of sound reinforcement equipment:

1: The high-end dynamic microphones can be used for performances, and the mid-range or low-end microphones can be used for karaoke. The band or band’s violin, piano, or drum instrument can use condenser microphones. In order to reduce the trouble caused by cables, wireless microphones can be used. It is a dynamic microphone plus a radiator, and the pocket type is mostly an electret microphone plus a radiator, and its technical indicators are slightly lower than that of the wired facsimile of the same grade.

2: The main function of the mixer is to combine various audio sources (microphones, CD players, LD recording decks, etc.), various electro-acoustic instruments (electronic organs, synthesizers, electric guitars, bass guitars, etc.), and various peripherals The audio signals of the equipment are mixed as required; each channel of acoustic signals is modified and compensated to a certain extent; the acoustic signals are divided into multiple groups for output as required. Generally, 8~16 mixers can be used in dance halls, and those with bands can choose more channels. The technical indicators and tuning of the mixer are directly related to the quality of the sound and the noise of the system.

3: The equalizer is used to correct the defects of the frequency transmission characteristics caused by the uneven resonance characteristics of the room itself and the frequency distortion generated by the sound reinforcement equipment (mainly speakers, microphones, etc.), modify the timbre of musical instruments and actors, and improve the effect of artistic performance. The analog equalizer is composed of analog circuits (amplifiers), mostly graphical, used as room compensation, generally only one-time adjustment. The digital equalizer adopts computer technology, which can predict and store multiple equalization curves to display the dynamic spectrum of the spectrum. It is mostly used by performing groups that modify the tone or moving places, so it is not used in dance halls.

4: Compressor/limiter should be used in larger and important dance halls, especially discos, so that the system will not be overloaded and will not produce excessive distortion.

5: The effector can make up for the lack of natural reverberation in the room, modify the timbre and create special effects. The multi-function effector can store a large number of sound processing programs, and comprehensively process the sound signal such as delay, reverberation, echo, chorus, re-song, excitation, equalization, and left and right channel redistribution. Reverberators and delayers are also a type of effector.

6: Sound exciter is a sound processing device that generates high-order harmonics based on the fundamental frequency of the fundamental tone. It can greatly improve the sound penetration in places where the human voice is chaotic. It can increase the effect when the singer sings or play tapes. It is not necessary to play CDs. It is forbidden to use it in serious music places.

7: Electronic frequency divider When the sound reinforcement system requirements are relatively high, the full-band speaker box (combined speaker box) is generally not used, but an electronic frequency divider is used to divide the sound signal and send it to the high, medium, and Low three power amplifiers, and then drive the high, medium, and low speaker boxes to produce sound (sometimes divided into high [middle] and low frequency bands.

8: Power amplifier is to amplify the voltage and current (power) of weak electrical signals to directly drive the speaker. Because it is a high-power output device and the load is mainly an inductance speaker, it is easy to malfunction when used improperly. In order to ensure the expansion The sound is believed to be the same, the main power amplifier is best to use the same brand, it should not be near the recording stand to avoid electromagnetic interference.

9: The loudspeaker is the last important link of the sound reinforcement equipment. It restores the electric power signal to the sound signal, so it is also a key link. The two- and three-way combined loudspeaker box of the full frequency band (from bass to treble) used in dance halls . When the impedance is the same, the rated power of the general power amplifier can be 1.5~2 times the rated power of the speaker. The main speaker box should also be of the same brand to avoid confusion.

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